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Demystifying Singapore’s Approach to International Tax Treaties: Insights and Implications


In the globalized economy, international tax treaties play a vital role in preventing double taxation and promoting cross-border trade and investment. Singapore, as a prominent financial hub, has actively engaged in bilateral tax treaties, with approximately 85 double tax agreements (DTAs) in force. This blog post provides a comprehensive overview of Singapore’s approach to tax treaties, including the application of the OECD Model, reservations to relevant articles, competent authority and mutual agreement procedure (MAP) processes, and the incorporation of base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) recommendations through the multilateral instrument (MLI).

I. Treaties in Force and the OECD Model:

Singapore has concluded around 85 DTAs, and most of these treaties adhere to the OECD Model. The language used in these agreements is typically equivalent to Article 9 on associated enterprises, which addresses transfer pricing issues. Additionally, many of the treaties include an equivalent provision to Article 9(2) on corresponding adjustments. This demonstrates Singapore’s commitment to aligning its tax treaties with internationally accepted standards and guidelines.

II. Reservations to Relevant Articles of the OECD Model and Commentary:

In specific cases, Singapore has exercised reservations to certain articles of the OECD Model and its commentary. Firstly, regarding paragraph 4 of Article 25, which pertains to the mutual agreement procedure, Singapore reserves the right to omit the reference to a joint commission consisting of the competent authorities or their representatives. This indicates that Singapore may choose an alternative approach when engaging in the mutual agreement procedure.

Furthermore, Singapore reserves the right to modify paragraph 5 of Article 25, which deals with the arbitration procedure if the competent authorities fail to reach an agreement within a specified timeframe. This reservation suggests that Singapore may adopt a different arbitration process or mechanism under certain circumstances.

III. Competent Authority and MAP Processes:

Singapore’s DTAs typically incorporate a mutual agreement procedure (MAP), providing competent authorities with the means to address situations where taxation does not align with the provisions of the respective treaty. This mechanism becomes particularly relevant in cases involving transfer pricing adjustments that affect related parties in different jurisdictions. The competent authorities of both contracting states can be requested to consult and strive for an agreement to resolve the issue.

Singapore’s Transfer Pricing Guidelines offer guidance on the MAP and have been updated to provide greater clarity. To initiate the MAP, a taxpayer must demonstrate a high likelihood of double taxation, submit the application within the specified time limit, and cooperate with the procedure. Prior to making a formal MAP request, the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (IRAS) requires a preliminary meeting with the taxpayer. If an agreement is reached with the other competent authority on the relevant issues, a post-agreement meeting is conducted with the taxpayer to discuss the implementation of the agreed-upon terms. However, it’s important to note that Singapore’s double tax treaties generally only require the competent authorities to endeavor to reach an agreement, without provisions for arbitration if an agreement is not reached.

As a BEPS Associate, Singapore is committed to cooperating with other jurisdictions to monitor the implementation of minimum standards on dispute resolution. This commitment ensures that taxpayers have access to effective and expedient mechanisms for resolving disputes under bilateral tax treaties.

IV. Multilateral Instrument (MLI) and Implications for Tax Treaties:

On 7 June 2017, Singapore signed the MLI, which incorporates the tax treaty-related recommendations of the OECD/G20 BEPS project into its bilateral tax treaties. The government has also released a provisional list of reservations and notifications regarding changes to bilateral treaties. The MLI came into force for Singapore on 1 April 2019. This step underscores Singapore’s dedication to implementing BEPS measures and aligning its tax treaties with evolving international tax standards.

On 11 October 2017, the IRAS published an e-tax guide on tax treaties, offering comprehensive guidance on the interpretation and application of Singapore’s tax treaties and the mutual agreement procedure. The guide also includes a dedicated section on the MLI and its implications for tax treaties.


Singapore’s proactive engagement in bilateral tax treaties demonstrates its commitment to facilitating cross-border trade and investment while preventing double taxation. By aligning with the OECD Model and providing a comprehensive mutual agreement procedure, Singapore offers taxpayers avenues for resolving tax disputes in a fair and efficient manner. The incorporation of BEPS recommendations through the MLI further solidifies Singapore’s position as a leading jurisdiction in international tax matters. Taxpayers operating in Singapore should stay abreast of these developments and leverage the available resources to ensure compliance and mitigate the risk of double taxation.

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